Orbital diseases in childhood differ from those which exist in adults. Orbital diseases are not as common as in adults; most of the cases are benign tumours and developmental anomalies. However, the clinical signs of the diseases are more pronounced as in adults. These are: proptosis, palpebral oedema, strabismus and ptosis. Diagnosis of the diseases can be done by CT, MRI, ultrasound, but histopathological examination is very important, as well. Clinical examinations of children can be very difficult, but it has an important role. The most frequent diseases: Benign proliferative diseases (cysts, dermoid), malignant tumours (rhabdomyosarcoma – especially under 5 years of age), inflammations, trauma, developmental anomalies, endocrine orbitopathy. Therapy: removal of the benign tumours, removal and/or combined cytostatic therapy of malignant tumours, antiinflammatoric therapy in cases of inflammations. The therapy of orbital diseases is interdisciplinary: a collaboration of an ophthalmologist, a pediatrist and an oncologist is needed.
Keywords: orbital tumours, childhood, medical imaging